Posted on January 14, 2013
(the Russian version of this page December 26, 2012)
The Future of the Universe or What is the Weight of a Positron
NOTE: everything (or most) described in this and previous (dated February 25, 2010) articles may turn to be a reality – if the weight of matter is not equal to that of antimatter.
This article supplements the article titled ‘Dark Energy of the Universe and Its Nature’ the abstract of which was published in the Ukraina Moloda newspaper on February 25, 2010 (the full text of the article is available on my web site).
The words used in the title of this article and namely “…What is the Weight of a Positron?”, have more than just a fundamental meaning. They are essential for understanding the basics of the evolution of the Universe. For understanding the nature of dark matter and energy.
Do we know everything of vacuum, matter? I.e. do matter and antimatter have the same weight or Not? For instance, do electron and positron, proton and antiproton have the same weight or not?? (Please note, not mass but weight!!).
If it turns out that the weight of antimatter doesn’t have the equal sign to that of matter – this will be a revolution in the cosmology, astrophysics and physics in general. This will overturn our concept of the world we live in.
I believe the experiments aimed at measuring the weight of antiparticles should have a PRIORITY and be carried out with such experiments as elementary particles studies, search of gravity waves and some other modern science experiments.
The information given below should be read in the context of the article ‘Dark Energy in the Universe and Its Nature’. I will specify the main assumptions described in that article.
Vacuum polarization with gravitational field. (I’ll attempt to explain the very mechanism of vacuum polarization with gravitational field sometime later).
The presence of antimatter on the periphery of our Universe (Metagalaxy), in the form of a shell or some kind of hydrogen ‘atmosphere’ (more precisely antihydrogene), molecules of which comprise antiproton and positron.
Now let me clarify some points not described in the previous article.
The boundaries and age of our Universe. In the estimation of the modern science, the age of the Universe is about 14 billion years.
However I believe the age of our Metagalaxy is more by AT LEAST several billion years.
Why? Because the distance around 14 billion light years, the distance that’s deemed to be the edge, the boundary of our universe, is nOt indeed the boundary of our world.
Over there, at the distance exceeding 14 billion light years, exists some kind of a shell, an ‘atmosphere’ made of antimatter reaching far beyond the above mentioned distance (14 bln light years).
The MASS of that antimatter shell equals to the mass of our Universe whose inner layers are quite tenuous and the outer layers , probably, are much more dense than inner ones (or probably vice versa). Likewise our Universe has a positive electric charge while the antimatter formation around our Metagalaxy bears negative electric charge. These charges are generated as a result of vacuum polarization caused by gravitational fields. The net charge of the Universe (matter and antimatter, or, to be exact, space (vacuum) where the matter is contained) equals to zero.
Now we approached the most important question – vacuum polarization gravitational fields.
Let me briefly remind the mechanism of such polarization (the detailed description is given in the article ‘Dark Energy in the Universe and Its Nature’).
Due to difference of attractive forces of virtual electron-positron pairs comprising the physical vacuum, a shift of electron-positron pairs along the lines of gravitational field takes place in the gravitational field of material objects (from asteroids and planets to galactic clusters and the Universe as a whole). This in turn causes electrical vacuum polarization, similar to the effect if vacuum would be present in electrical field between armatures of a charged condenser.
Material objects acquire positive charge while the space around them (extending far beyond by many radiuses more of the object itself) acquires the negative electric charge. This is not just mere polarization of the matter, rather polarization of space (and the matter contained therein) where material objects are located. The space is polarized from the mass center of a celestial object and for the entire radius of the gravitational field action.
Two objects will be attracted towards one another with their gravitational fields, whereas the space between the centers of mass of the objects will acquire negative electric charge. This charge will hamper gravitational attraction between the objects. Its value is proportional to gravity field intensity and the distance between the objects.
There should be such characteristic as maximum possible or vacuum polarization limit per unit of volume. E.g. in the vicinity of massive celestial objects and black holes.
Now we have approached some issues of the contemporary astrophysics.
As is known from observations, the further galaxies and galactic clusters are located from us, the faster they move away (according to the so called Hubble’s law).
Those located on the very edge of the Universe move at the velocities close to that of the light.
This paradox lacks unequivocal answer.
The observations also suggest such fact as massive (the most powerful of those known to science) gamma-ray bursts that occur 2 to 3 times a year in various parts of the sphere. And it happens at the very edge of the Universe.
What is the nature of these gamma-ray bursts, what is their source? These questions remain unanswered.
Below are the answers to these questions.
At the periphery of our Universe there is a formation of antimatter that attracts stars, galaxies and galactic clusters.
The closer a galaxy or galactic cluster to the apparent boundary, the edge of our Universe, the stronger is such attraction, the higher is acceleration directed beyond the Metagalaxy boundary.
They (galaxies and galactic clusters) move towards their destruction in the abyss of annihilation and disappear permanently from our world - the world of the rest mass and pass into the world without the rest mass, the world of pure energy.
I think our Universe may face the same destiny as the matter and antimatter are present in equal proportions.
Now it’s more than understood that a gigantic gamma-ray bursts result from annihilation of thousands of stars.
Similarly, in my opinion, vacuum polarization with gravitational fields is the KEY to understanding the principles of cellular structure of the Universe.
However the main question to be answered to prove the truth of the assumptions made, and determine whether all this is a fruit of the author’s imagination or indeed incomprehensible complexity of our University (way beyond the fantasts’ imagination) is still ‘What is the weight of a positron?’.