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Dark energy in the Universe and its nature

Article quick links.

  1. What is known to science.
  2. What is unknown to science.
  3. My hypotheses and assumptions.
  4. THE MAIN HYPOTHESIS: gravitational field polarizes vacuum.
  5. Experiment for hypothesis testing (one of many possible).
  6. What do my hypotheses explain.

Posted to the web-site on 1st March , 2010

Dark energy in the Universe and its nature


I recommend start reading from the section Few words about myself.

FOREWORD (AFTERWORD)

For a start, I would like to point out at one peculiarity. This article contains not a single formula, no figures. Why? The answer is simple. There is no need to copy figures and formulas from text books and manuals. On the other hand, I have no possibility to give exact figures (including errors) taken from reliable and experimentally-proven data. To be exact, it is possible, though very difficult it requires much time for search and filtration of information.

Yet, specialists, having material and technical resources, informational database and willing, can do these calculations and experiments themselves (If only I had the resources I need!!)

The most importantly, I have described the mechanism that explains some natural phenomena. Will it be the stone to be laid in the foundation of the building named physics, or will it be just a garbage time will show.

Or, possibly we will make one more toddling step in the labyrinth of learning our world.

Historical background

The thoughts and speculations expressed here, have their roots in another (though adjacent) field of knowledge annihilation of matter and antimatter.

What we know about the mechanism of annihilation? Absolutely nothing.

We only know what was before annihilation and what is after. For instance, two particles, lets say an electron and positron, slowly approach one another, then, as we know, before annihilation they may form a short- living interrelated pair, a positronium. Then occurs bang, i.e. annihilation when the matter transforms into energy, and as a result we receive 2 photons.

But what was going on in that period of time when particles were annihilating? As annihilation could not happen immediately!

What is the structure of the annihilation mechanism??

I am ready to give my suggestions on this mechanism, though, many things remain unclear to me, many things dont match each other, and therefore it is the subject for the next article.

But the central idea that explains the mechanism of annihilation of matter and antimatter runs like a golden thread through this article. And it gives rise to the assumptions set forth below.

These are assumptions that will help us to kill three birds with one stone, that is:

2
1. Why after the Big Bang, when particles of matter and antimatter were formed in the same proportion, in the battle of annihilation matter has won. Why?
The quantity of matter and antimatter was equal, so they should completely annihilate each other and turn to energy. Undoubtedly, there are many theories that explain why misbalance had occurred and matter has won.
2. The latent energy in the Universe. What is it and what its nature?I would like to give a short quote that reflects the essence of the problem. This quote is taken from an article at the web-site www.gazeta.ru in Science section. Full article read here.
The quote: the nature of dark energy What is it? ... its microscopic essence, microscopic nature?... end of the quote.

3. The structure or nature of the annihilation mechanism.

So, these 3 problems (2 problems definitely are there, and what is the third one? Maybe it exists just in my own imagination) can be solved within limits of one assumption that you can read further.

1

But lets first dwell on the nature of vacuum.

What do we know about it? Vacuum is space free of any particles that might be recorded by any devices, i.e.  real particles that live such periods of time which we can measure and record them  (particles).

But vacuum, according to modern views, is inhabited by virtual particles that live such short periods of time that they become invisible for our devices, so we can learn about them only by indirect manifestations, that is:

1.

Polarization of vacuum in the electric field. For example, if energize two plates that form a condenser and are in vacuum, then dielectric displacement will occur between the plates. But, dielectric displacement occurs only in a dielectric located in the electric field. And there are no particles in vacuum, still dielectric displacement is there. And here virtual particles come to help, i.e. electron-positron pairs that appear and disappear as if pulsing. These are they who are responsible for dielectric displacement in vacuum.

And then, vacuum is not only space practically free of real particles. It is also space filled with matter as gas, liquid and solid bodies do not fill completely all the space they occupy. Lets recollect that everything comprises of molecules, molecules comprise of atoms, atoms comprise of nucleus and electronic shell.

So, the space between molecules, atoms, nuclei of atoms and electronic shells is filled with  vacuum, respectively, it is filled with virtual particles.

2.

As you know, a strong electric field in vacuum can bring to life an electron-positron pair that from a virtual one becomes real. Virtual electron-positron pairs that fill vacuum and are within the electric field, same as outside that field, appear and disappear.

But, lets assume that a certain formed paird that in some moment of time stays in the electric field did not annihilate. The electric field kind of pulls an electron and positron off one another, not letting them annihilate and perish. As a result, virtual electron and positron become real.

From the said above it follows that virtual electron and positron by their physical properties are identical to a real electron and positron. They have the same mass, charge and other physical characteristics as real particles.

Now, a question: Why vacuum is as it is and not otherwise, why it is full of virtual particles and why they pulse? Scientists would say that these are fundamental quantum and mechanical properties of  vacuum, and thats all.

But Theories just state the fact of availability of properties of vacuum, but they dont answer the question why nature of these properties is so, and not otherwise?

What is beyond the limits of virtual particles?

Somebody can object that there is nothing this is the foundation of the Universe!

But an electron-positron pair, either virtual or real, is matter. After annihilation electron and positron turn to 2 photons.

But what are photons matter or energy? Or just an   intermediate link between matter and energy?

And what are gravitation, magnetic, electric fields? Pure energy???

Ok. We have understood something about vacuum. Lets talk about one more rule.

3

In nature there is a dominating law ruling the existence of particles and antiparticles, and electric charge both negative and positive. Same as scales have two pans balancing each other, same things happen in nature, too.

Thus now we have approached the essence, the core idea of this article. I would like to emphasize that these are just my assumptions, and not assertions. May be it is how the world goes,  or maybe it is not.

Now about the main thing.

Both matter and antimatter have the equal mass, I believe that it is so. But same as an electron has negative electric charge, and a positron has positive one, particles of matter and antimatter have different gravitation charges.

Particles of matter, by means of their gravitation fields, are attracted to one another, particles of antimatter by their gravitation fields repel each other. But between particles of matter and antimatter gravitational attraction is stronger that that between particles of matter. For example, if to weight an electron and positron on the Earth, then at the same mass a positron will weigh more than an electron.

And really, what is the weight (not the mass!!!) of a positron?

What theory says? What experiments show?

If I am not mistaken, such experiments were never carried out because of too small gravitational interaction between particles.

Of course, such experiments will be performed in future and then they will be able to confirm or disprove my conclusions.

But the assumption on existence of gravitation charges gives us? It gives a lot! It gives a solution to two above-mentioned problems, and more.

So, the first problem:

Why after birth of the Universe in the battle of matter and antimatter matter has won? The quantity of particles of matter and   antimatter was the same.

But lets examine everything in proper order.

After the Big Bang, when particles and antiparticles with their rest mass had been formed gravitational interaction appeared, which means that in that rapidly expanding clot of matter appeared the field of gravitation of terrific density. And this clot of matter was full of particles and antiparticles in equal share. So how particles with different gravitation charges did behave?

They behaved differently. As I already have mentioned above, particles of matter are attracted to each other, and gravitational attraction of particles and antiparticles is again stronger than that of particles to one another. But antiparticles repel one another.

6

Now lets think about the very first moment of life of the Universe. An expanding sphere made of matter and antimatter annihilating each other.

But, particles and antiparticles on the surface of a sphere behaved totally differently. The attracting force of particles of matter was directed towards the centre of the expanding Universe, while antiparticles on the surface did not have any neither attracting force, nor repulsive force. Thus, particles of matter and antimatter began to move with different speed. The power of gravitational attraction of antiparticles directed towards the centre of the expanding Universe was the less the closer they were to the surface of a sphere, and on the surface itself this power was equal to zero. But, the power of gravitational attraction of particles directed towards the centre was the more the closer they were to the surface, and on the surface itself is was the maximum. Thus, it becomes clear that speed of movement of antiparticles that were the closest to the surface and on the surface of a sphere did not slow down in contrast to particles of matter that experienced the power of gravitational attraction directed towards the centre that hampered their motion. With sizes of a  sphere increasing (expansion of the Universe), the area of its  surface in creased too. Respectively, with sizes of the Universe increasing chances of antimatter to escape annihilation grew as well (same as those of matter itself). The young Universe was surrounded by a sort of atmosphere of antimatter.

Now, I believe, it is clear why matter has won.

It follows from the said above that there is something similar to an atmosphere of antimatter around our Universe.

I would like to underline that particles of antimatter are similar to gas that tends to expand, they do not stick together like particles of matter, but repel one another  by their gravitation fields.

For clarity one can draw a parallel between n the Earth and its atmosphere. The gravitation field of the Earth holds its gaseous atmosphere not letting it disperse in space. Almost the same as gravitation field, the Universe holds a sort of atmosphere of antimatter. And the mass of this atmosphere of antimatter shall be equal to the mass of matter with rest mass.

But it is not only the Universe that by means of its gravitation field holds that atmosphere close to it. The same way that formation of antimatter around our Universe holds onto it with its gravitation field, and this field penetrates the Universe causing the effect of   increased density of the gravitation field and, respectively, the effected of (probably) increased mass  of the  Universe. But it is not an illusion of the mass increase. Mass of the Universe plus mass of the atmosphere of antimatter, plus mass of vacuum, plus mass (but, probably, not plus) of huge electric fields that appear

Read about this matter in the following material of this article.

So, now we came close to the second problem.

1

Latent energy what it is and what its nature?

According to astrophysical data, between galactic clusters, besides the gravitational attraction, another force - repulsive one - came out to stage approximately 5-7 billion of years ago.

But what is this power? What its mechanism?

And here we can make a good use of the assumption that the same as electron and positron are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, particles of matter and antimatter are opposite in their gravitation charge.

3

I would like to repeat: particles of matter by means of their gravitation fields attract one another, while particles of antimatter repel one another, and attraction of particles of matter and antimatter is stronger than attraction of particles of matter to one another.

Now we are close to the most important thing -  a clue to the mechanism of repulsion of the Universe.

Vacuum is inhabited by virtual electron-positron pairs which electric charges, regardless their virtuality and same as that of real electron and positron are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. But virtual electron-positron pairs (same as real ones) have also different gravitation charges.

4

And just the same way as in the electric field occurs vacuum polarization (electrical polarization) due to different electric charges of an electron and positron, in the gravitation field occurs gravitational polarization of vacuum due to different gravitation charges of a virtual electron and positron. Between the moment of production and the moment of annihilation an electron-positron pair in the field of gravitation only manages to turn slightly along the lines of the gravitation field. A positron turns slightly aside with the density of the gravitation field increasing, and electron does the same with this density decreasing. An insignificant gravitational displacement of the mass of electron-positron pair occurs, which, in its turn, causes electric polarization of vacuum, as electron and positron have not only different gravitation charges, but also different electric charges.

6

Now it is clear that all celestial objects planets, stars, galaxies, galactic clusters and the entire Universe polarize vacuum by their gravitation fields. Bodies that have rest mass acquire positive electric charge. The space around celestial objects acquires negative electric charge. THE BIGGER IS THE MASS OF OBJECTS AND DISTANCE BETWEEN THEM, THE STRONGER ARE ELECTRIC FIELDS BETWEEN THEM. IT IS AS IF INVISIBLE SPRINGS APPEAR BETWEEN CELESTIAL OBJECTS THAT COUNTERACT THE GRAVITATIONAL ATTRACTION.

But it is not all. Lines of electric fields arise along lines of the gravitation fields, and lines of electric fields (same as that of the magnetic field) repel one another. In the field of gravitation vacuum kind of repulses itself (cross repulsion) as well as any substance in it (in vacuum).

But why electric polarization of vacuum in the gravitation field has not been discovered so far?

According to me, the explanation is simple. Either the measurement field or measuring devices shall be isolated either from vacuum, or from the gravitation field. But it is physically impossible as gravitation fields penetrate all and everything, and any substances are full of virtual particles.

But

5

It is possible to experimentally clarify, confirm or disprove the possibility of electric polarization of vacuum in the gravitation field.

(Deviating little from the subject, I would like to say that, in my opinion, electromagnetic waves can be the tool by means of which this experiment can be performed, as to say, in the vast expanses of the Universe. But I still dont know how to do it.)

Now I am to describe the procedure of the experiment. The attracting force between two plates in vacuum shall be measured in two positions along and across lines of the field of gravitation of the Earth. At the position of planes of plates along lines of the gravitation field, plates shall repel one another, and at the position across lines of the field the plates shall attract one another irrespective of the material they are made of (conductor or dielectric). At the position of planes of plates (made of conducting material) along lines of the gravitation field the attracting force (the Casimir effect) shall be less than when planes of plates are across lines of the gravitation field.

If it will prove so, then it will be a direct acknowledgment of   vacuum polarization in the field of gravitation.
And one more thing  lines of the gravitation field of the Sun and Earth shall coincide in the experiment area, that means that the Sun shall be whether  above or beneath (on the opposite side of the Earth) the  experiment area, for better effect. And the best of all would be carrying out the experiment along the axis line  the Sun, Earth and other planets of the solar system, then the effect will be  maximum.

When carrying out such an experiment, it would be necessary to eliminate manifestations of various phenomena and effects, including the Casimir effect.

If results of such experiments will be positive, it will have crucial importance.

FOREWORD (AFTERWORD)

For a start, I would like to point out at one peculiarity. This article contains not a single formula, no figures. Why? The answer is simple. There is no need to copy figures and formulas from text books and manuals. On the other hand, I have no possibility to give exact figures (including errors) taken from reliable and experimentally-proven data. To be exact, it is possible, though very difficult it requires much time for search and filtration of information.

Yet, specialists, having material and technical resources, informational database and willing, can do these calculations and experiments themselves (If only I had the resources I need!!).

The most importantly, I have described the mechanism that explains some natural phenomena. Will it be the stone to be laid in the foundation of the building named physics, or will it be just a garbage time will show.

Or, possibly we will make one more toddling step in the labyrinth of learning our world.


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